By Heather Jones
During this groundbreaking new learn, Heather Jones offers the 1st in-depth and comparative exam of violence opposed to First international warfare prisoners. She indicates how the battle radicalised captivity therapy in Britain, France and Germany, dramatically undermined foreign legislations keeping prisoners of struggle and ended in new varieties of pressured prisoner labour and reprisals, which fuelled wartime propaganda that was once usually in line with exact prisoner testimony. This ebook finds how, in the course of the clash, expanding numbers of captives weren't despatched to domestic entrance camps yet retained in western entrance operating devices to labour at once for the British, French and German armies - within the German case, by way of 1918, prisoners operating for the German military persevered common malnutrition and incessant beatings. Dr Jones examines the importance of those new, violent developments and their later legacy, arguing that the nice battle marked a key turning-point within the 20th century evolution of the felony camp.
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Extra resources for Violence against Prisoners of War in the First World War: Britain, France and Germany, 1914-1920 (Studies in the Social and Cultural History of Modern Warfare)
Numerous key issues emerge. First, even though the entire prisoners have been paid the same quantity, 30 Pfennig, the rations they have been receiving differed considerably from camp to camp even if all have been engaged upon heavy handbook labour. furthermore, the ‘wages’ the prisoners earned weren't to be paid till after the tip of the warfare, which, in impression, intended they labored with none ﬁnancial gift. moment, the prisoners in those camps acquired or bartered for an important foodstuff supplementations from neighborhood civilians with out which their will be jeopardised, rather because the bread ration they have been receiving used to be made from replacement components and the paintings camps they lived in had no ofﬁcial canteen from which to shop for additional nutrients. thirteen additional nutrients from parcels used to be additionally now not assured within the occupied territories. At a gathering to debate the management of prisoner labour in October 1917 it was once stated via the German 12 thirteen Ibid. The ﬂour content material of prisoners’ bread was once open to query. An order from the Generalintendant des Feldheeres said that any addition of bran or husks to the ﬂour for prisoners’ bread rations needs to retain a minimal dietary price equivalent to that of four hundred grams of bread made of ninety four according to cent of rye ﬂour, illustrating that a few dilution of the ﬂour content material was once general perform. BA-MA, PH5/II/456, f. fifty five, normal Intendant des Feldheeres IIId Nr. 254. eleven. 17, Gr. H. Qu. to alle Armee-Oberkommandos usw. thirteen. eleven. 1917. 172 Violence and prisoner of struggle compelled labour ofﬁcers current that prisoners have been so often moved from camp to camp and, certainly, frequently from the management of 1 German military to a different, that the supply of parcels and submit to them used to be very abnormal. 14 3rd, those inspection studies exhibit that the lodging and garments of the prisoners was once mostly substandard by means of overdue 1917. ultimately, rations have been deﬁned in line with no matter if a prisoner was once unwell, doing usual guide labour or regarded as a ‘heavy labourer’ (Schwerarbeiter). traditional employees obtained four hundred grams of bread in step with head consistent with day. For males doing particularly heavy paintings as Schwerarbeiter, this may be raised to six hundred grams of bread. ailing prisoners obtained four hundred grams or much less. An order from the Intendant basic of the sector military (Generalintendant des Feldheeres) on thirteen November 1917 speciﬁed that ‘sick or convalescent prisoners in convalescent businesses, convalescent houses and so on. are to obtain the normal worker’s ration if based on clinical recommendation this may go back them to complete operating energy in the foreseeable future’. 15 What ration used to be to receive if clinical suggestion maintained that they have been not likely to come to paintings isn't transparent. what number prisoners did fall unwell from those stipulations? Paybooks from numerous of the Engländer Kommando three operating camps within the sixth (Bavarian) military offer an perception into the level of disease and the quantity of day off which prisoners obtained. sixteen the next affliction charges are drawn from the paybooks of Kommandos dependent at Le Hamage, Nomain-Delmez and Néchin, in the course of the interval September to November 1917.